Rumus dan Materi Direct and Indirect Speech Lengkap
|Rumus dan Materi Direct and Indirect Speech Lengkap|
Direct dan Indirect Speech
Hal penting pada bentuk direct speech
- Reporting verb (yang melaporkan) dan reported words (yang dilaporkan) dipisah tanda koma (,).
- Reported words dalam kalimat langsung ditulis dalam tanda kutip.
- Reporting verb disebut juga reporting sentence (kalimat pelapor) dan reported words disebut dengan reported speech (kalimat yang dilaporkan).
- Reporting verb tidak harus di awal kalimat, tetapi bisa berada di akhir.
Hal penting dalam kalimat tak langsung
- Reporting verb dengan reported words dihubungkan oleh kata hubung (conjunction).
- Tidak diperlukan tanda kutip
Ketentuan Mengubah Direct ke Indirect Speech
1. Mengubah sudut pandang subjek
- Direct : Rina said to me, "I buy it for you."
- Indirect : Rina said to me that she bought it for me.
2. Perhatikan tenses pada kalimat
- Direct : She says, "I am beautiful."
- Indirect : She says that she is beautiful.
- Direct : She said, "I am beautiful."
- Indirect : She said that she was beautiful.
3. Mengubah keterangan waktu
- now ---> then/at that time
- today ---> that day
- yesterday ---> the day before
- the day before yesterday --> two days before
- tomorrow --> the next day/the following day
- the day after tomorrow --> in two day's time
- next week/month/year --> the following week/month/year
- last week/month/year --> the previous week/month/year
Perubahan Tenses Dari Direct ke Indirect
- simple present --> simple past
- present continuous --> past continuous
- simple past --> past perfect
- present perfect --> past perfect
- past perfect --> past perfect
- present perfect continuous --> past perfect continuous
- past continuous --> past perfect continuous
- future tense --> past future tense (conditional)
- future continuous tense --> past future continuous (conditional continuous)
Perubahan Modal Dari Direct ke Indirect
- can --> could
- must --> must
- have to --> had to
- would --> would
- could --> could
- might --> might
Bentuk-Bentuk Direct dan Indirect Speech
1. Kalimat berbentuk statement atau pernyataan
- Direct : Arum said, "I'm hungry."
- Indirect : Arum said that she was hungry.
2. Kalimat berbentuk pertanyaan 5W1H
- Direct : She asked me, "What is your name ?"
- Indirect : She asked me what my name was.
3. Kalimat berbentuk pertanyaan yes/no question
- Direct : She said, "Do you know my name ?"
- Indirect : She said if I knew her name.
- Indirect : She said whether I knew her name.
4. Kalimat berbentuk perintah
- Direct : Anto asked me, "Close the window!"
- Indirect : Anto asked me to close the window.
5. Kalimat berbentuk larangan
- Direct : He said, "Don't turn off the lamp!"
- Indirect : He said not to turn off the lamp.
Contoh Kalimat Direct dan Indirect Speech
- Direct : She told me, "Now, we are friend."
- Indirect : She told me than we was friend .
- Direct : They told me, "We visited your home tomorrow."
- Indirect : They told me that they had visited my home the following day.
- Direct : "I had had a new car", he said.
- Indirect : He said that he had had a new car.
- Direct : The teacher said to us, "We will go to Bali tomorrow."
- Indirect : The teacher said to us that we would go to Bali the next day.
- Direct : I said to him, "I have met with you."
- Indirect : I said ti him that I had met with him.
- Direct : Rina said, "I can sleep well today."
- Indirect : Rina said that she could sleep well that day.
- Direct : We said to him, "We might play together next meeting."
- Indirect : We said to him that we might play together the following meeting.
- Direct : I asked her, "Where do you live ? "
- Indirect : I asked her where she lives.
- Direct : My mother asked me, "When do you have final exam ?"
- Indirect : My mother asked me when I have final exam.
- Direct : My father asked me, "Do you agree with my opinion ?"
- Indirect : My father asked me if I agreed with his opinion.
- Direct : She said to me, "Did you know the story ? "
- Indirect : She said to me whether I had known the story.
- Direct : Asti asked him, "Open you book ! "
- Indirect : Asti asked him to open his book.
- Direct : They said to me, "Don't study alone !"
- Indirect : They said to me not to study alone.